ranjitbees

Oracle – DBA

CHALLENGES IN MICROGENERATION


The key challenges in microgeneration are:

• costs – many technologies currently rely on grant support to achieve even small markets;

• regulatory issues – planning permission, the low value of exported electricity and high transaction costs for accessing rewards for renewable generation;

• lack of long-term incentives for renewable heat;

• lack of awareness, independent information and advice, negative perceptions about the technologies or installers;

• inadequate skills base

• lack of targets and framework for positive environment for investment

• lack of long-term rewards and carbon price signal

CHALLENGES IN MICROGENERATION


The key challenges in microgeneration are:

• costs – many technologies currently rely on grant support to achieve even small markets;

• regulatory issues – planning permission, the low value of exported electricity and high transaction costs for accessing rewards for renewable generation;

• lack of long-term incentives for renewable heat;

• lack of awareness, independent information and advice, negative perceptions about the technologies or installers;

• inadequate skills base

• lack of targets and framework for positive environment for investment

• lack of long-term rewards and carbon price signal

AP hiked the wind power tariff to Rs. 4.70/unit


To promote wind energy on large scale, Andhra Pradesh hiked the wind power tariff from the existing Rs 3.50 to Rs 4.70/unit for 25 years, for firms which sign up power purchase agreements by March 31, 2015.

State’s regulatory body, Andhra Pradesh Electricity Regulatory Commission (APERC), on 15th Nov,2012 gave its approval to a petition filed by wind developers in the state.

The installed capacity of wind power plants in AP is 197 MW as of May 2012.

Source

Gamesa mulls solar entry – to create new stream of revenues for the company


Gamesa, a global technological leader in the wind industry, is evaluating the prospects of foraying into the solar power industry in India. This move is intended to create a new stream of revenue and strike synergies between two renewable energy sources.

The company wants to take up engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) works to set up solar power plants. Presently the company’s role in solar industry is limited to marketing inverters and mobile phone charges.

Source

National Energy Map for India: Technology Vision 2030


India has recorded impressive rates of economic growth in recent years, which provide the basis for more ambitious achievements
in the future. However, a healthy rate of economic growth equalling or exceeding the current rate of 8% per annum would require
major provision of infrastructure and enhanced supply of input such as energy. High economic growth would create much larger
demand for energy and this would present the country with a variety of choices in terms of supply possibilities. Technology would be
an important element of future energy strategy for the country, because related to a range of future demand and supply scenario
would be issues of technological choice both on the supply and demand sides, which need to be understood at this stage, if they
are to become an important part of India’s energy solution in the future.

National Energy Map for India 2030 – TERI

World’s first integrated wind-powered charging station for electric vehicles.


General Electric and Urban Green Energy, a wind turbine maker, have installed the world’s first integrated wind-powered charging station for electric vehicles.

The Sanya Skypump, which pairs UGE’s vertical wind turbines with GE’s electric vehicle charging technology, was installed at the headquarters of Cespa, in Barcelona. Cespa is the environmental services subsidiary of Ferrovial Servicios, a private transportation infrastructure investor.

Germany Sets a New Solar Power Record – 14.7 TWh in 6 months


Approximately 1.2 million “solar power plants” owned by households and businesses in Germany  produced 14.7 TWh (Terawatt-hours) of electricity into the power grid during the first 6 months of 2012.

As of now, Germany is the world’s leading solar power producer with a cumulative installed capacity of approximately 28 GW  which is more than China’s 2015 target of 21 GW.

Cost of assembling solar systems


Anybody with little knowledge of electrical can assemble Solar systems at home ,
Here I have given items required for street light & its prices. Only you have to connect six connections your street light is ready. Like way you can save your money by adding solar panels to your inverter battery.

* Solar Module of 37 Wp – Rs.2405
* Lead Acid Battery of 40 Ah – Rs. 3900
* Solar Charge controller 12 volts / 6 Amp. Rs. 600
* Aluminium Die cast LED fitting 6 watt Rs. 800
* MCPCB for mounting LEDs —- Rs.300
* Edison Make LED of 1 watt / 110 Lm- 6 No. -Rs. 300
* LED Driver Rs. 300
* GI pole of 17 feet with fitting for Panel & Battery Box.- Rs. 1300
* Battery Box – Rs. 600
* Concrete foundation Rs. 1000
* Labour Rs. 500

Total is Rs.12005/-

out of this many items we can make ourselves or eliminate as per our requirement.

Reputed company sold it at rate of Rs. 15000/- to Rs. 25000/- So the company profit is vary from 25% to 110 %.

Also for 74wp Module / 75 Ah Tubular Battery & 18 watt fitting its cost is Rs. 19000/- per street light.

For details contact : 09822725907 & mail ID is : vdc.vdc999@gmail.com

Charging time for Electric Vehicles


Current electric vehicle charging system technologies fall into one of three standardized levels. Note that time to charge depends significantly on the characteristics of an individual vehicle, especially its battery type and chemistry.

Level 1: 120V AC, plug in to a standard wall outlet. These are included in all electric vehicles sold. Time to charge: 8-14 hours.

Level 2: 240V AC, special SAE J1772 connector. Customers may confuse this with the quick charge below. Time to charge: 4-8 hours.

DC quick charge: 500V DC, plug standards still in development. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) is working on a J1772 Combo Connector that combines the connections for Level 2 and DC in one connector. Time to charge: as little as 15 minutes.

Wind Power Calculations


There are many complicated calculations and equations involved in understanding and constructing wind turbine generators however the layman need not worry about most of these and should instead ensure they remember the following vital information:

1) The power output of a wind generator is proportional to the area swept by the rotor – i.e. double the swept area and the power output will also double.
2) The power output of a wind generator is proportional to the cube of the wind speed – i.e. double the wind speed and the power output will increase by a factor ofeight (2 x 2 x 2)!

The Power of Wind

Wind is made up of moving air molecules which have mass – though not a lot. Any moving object with mass carries kinetic energy in an amount which is given by the equation:

Kinetic Energy = 0.5 x Mass x Velocity2

where the mass is measured in kg, the velocity in m/s, and the energy is given in joules.

Air has a known density (around 1.23 kg/m3 at sea level), so the mass of air hitting our wind turbine (which sweeps a known area) each second is given by the following equation:

Mass/sec (kg/s) = Velocity (m/s) x Area (m2) x Density (kg/m3)

And therefore, the power (i.e. energy per second) in the wind hitting a wind turbine with a certain swept area is given by simply inserting the mass per secondcalculation into the standard kinetic energy equation given above resulting in the following vital equation:

Power = 0.5 x Swept Area x Air Density x Velocity3

where Power is given in Watts (i.e. joules/second), the Swept area in square metres, the Air density in kilograms per cubic metre, and the Velocity in metres per second.

Read World Wind Power Calculation

The world’s largest wind turbine generator has a rotor blade diameter of 126 metres and so the rotors sweep an area of PI x (diameter/2)2 = 12470 m2! As this is an offshore wind turbine, we know it is situated at sea-level and so we know the air density is 1.23 kg/m3. The turbine is rated at 5MW in 30mph (14m/s) winds, and so putting in the known values we get:

Wind Power = 0.5 x 12,470 x 1.23 x (14 x 14 x 14)

which gives us a wind power of around 21,000,000 Watts. Why is the power of the wind (21MW) so much larger than the rated power of the turbine generator (5MW)? Because of the Betz Limit, and inefficiencies in the system.

If you are not mathematically minded you can quit now, however it is well worth trying to understand what is going on here.

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